How it all began

How it all began

by Keith Skues

Programme Director

Legal land-based commercial radio for South Yorkshire was given the go ahead by the government on June 19th, 1972. Announcing this the Minister of Posts and Telecommunications, Sir John Eden, said that a radio station would service the Sheffield and Rotherham area.

The Programme Department of Radio Hallam was formed some 18 months before the company won its contract from the Independent Broadcasting Authority. A guidance team under Tom Chalmers (formerly Controller of BBC Light Programme) drew up detailed plans.

I was appointed Programme Director on March 14th, 1974.

My first endeavour was to recruit a handful of well-known personalities from national radio and complement them with a number of respected local broadcasters.

Whilst in London I formally approached Roger Moffat, Johnny Moran, and Bill Crozier, and to my amazement they all agreed to leap into the unknown and come with me to Sheffield. The four of us collectively had over 80 years radio experience and had seen service with BBC radios One and Two, British Forces Broadcasting Service, (formerly BFN) and Radio Luxembourg. Individual biographies can be found later in this booklet.

I wanted a personality radio station run by professionals and I knew these presenters had individual styles and were not exploited to the best of their abilities on other radio networks.

In our early days we worked from London operating from the offices of Radio Fleet and Trident Television. This was a temporary measure until a pile of bricks in Hartshead, Sheffield became more like a building. We were to occupy the top two floors — one ostensibly for Sales and Administration staff and the top floor to become two Studios, two Control Rooms, a Reception area, Record Library, News Room, Presentation Area, Workshop, Typing Pool and offices for the Managing Director, Programme Director and Chief Engineer.

In May 1974 the Managing Director and myself moved to Sheffield and joined the Chief Engineer who was already on site. More staff were recruited — News Editor, Sales and Promotions Manager, Company Secretary, Music Producer, who was also to be in charge of the Record Library, and a Secretary.

All the time I was holding auditions for local broadcasters. We received applications from over 700 hopeful Disc Jockeys but I could only take 3, all of whom had worked with BBC local radio. Later a Women’s Editor and Features Editor were appointed to the staff.

Announcers came on strength from August, although Roger Moffat joined a month earlier.

Eventually a General Office was constructed which housed everyone from the Managing Director to the Secretary. Day by day the building began to look more like a radio station — lights were fitted, telephones installed, typewriters and desks assembled.

Keith Skues
Dog

The foreman of the firm building Radio Hallam, Longdens, owned a dog called Mutley who became the station mascot. The dog was a great footballer and enjoyed nothing better than a quick game of soccer with the staff. Mutley was a relief to what were very worrying days. Would equipment arrive on time? Could we work out a detailed music format? We had no Library, no record players, no tape recorders, but during the months of May, June and July we had made useful contacts with record companies in London most of whom had either local or regional salesmen based in Manchester or Leeds.

Record companies have been invaluable since we went “on air” providing us with both new records and an excellent back-catalogue of discs. It was through them we had access to many of today’s top recording artists who visited Radio Hallam.

Countdown

Although we as presenters had worked in radio for many years, some of us upwards of 20, none of us had been in at the birth of a new radio station. There was less than a week when all technical equipment was in place and working and whatever time of day or night, the week preceding our air date one could see announcers rehearsing for their big moment on October 1st.

The building had still not been completed and there were miles of wires and cables scattered over the floor.

Test transmissions had begun on both the Medium wave and VHF stereo on Friday, September 20th at four o’clock in the afternoon and reaction from listeners was quite amazing. The IBA confirmed we could begin transmitting official programmes at 06.00 on Tuesday, October 1st.

The weekend leading up to “Blast Off” we organised a party for all members of staff as this would be the only opportunity of everyone meeting under the same roof. Once a radio station goes on the air it is impossible for every member of staff to be together at any one given time as someone has to be on duty.

Sheffield’s own Tony Christie, a frequent visitor to the Radio Hallam studios

On air

Few of us went to bed on the night of September 30th and remained in the Studio sipping cups of tea and putting the final touches to our programmes. Johnny Moran launched the station without pomp or ceremony and went down in history by saying: “This is Radio Hallam, the first independent local radio station serving South Yorkshire and the North Midlands. From our Studios in the centre of Sheffield we will have music, entertainment and information throughout the day and we will be providing a service of keeping the community in touch with local events and happenings”

“From now on we aim to do our best to please, and we are hoping you are going to find “It’s Nice to Have a Radio Station as a Friend”.

Television cameras from both Yorkshire Television and Sheffield Cablevision took what available space was left.

Reaction from listeners was immediate and the very first ‘phone call a little after 6.00 in the morning came from Mr Neil Furniss of Townend Street, Crookes who said he was listening on his way home from night shift and he was enjoying the show.

National, local and trade press have been most kind in their coverage of Radio Hallam and for this we are grateful. Any mention of our activities in the papers goes a long way to boosting the morale of the staff. Gentlemen, we thank you!

KEITH SKUES with CLIFF RICHARD one of many stars to be featured in “Chat In”

Outside broadcasts

Most of our programmes come from the Studios in Hartshead although I was keen to get local involvement with the help of Outside Broadcasts. Each night we visited local hostelries to talk with both the landlord and the customers and the programmes were an immediate success. 

From this idea our Outside Broadcasts grew. We had disc nights from clubs in the area including the launch of the Oasis Club in Rotherham and Turn Ups in Sheffield. The Top 40 Show came from a record shop. Our lunchtime OB where we would take the complete works, became a regular feature in our programme schedule. Here we visited car showrooms, shops, offices and even a railway station. One lunch show was spent in an aircraft flying over Sheffield, Rotherham and Doncaster.

Magnet recording star ALVIN STARDUST with BIG RAY STUART

Research

The applicant group had done much research into marketing in the Sheffield and Rotherham area which cost thousands of pounds. 

I had worked out a music format styled on both Top 40 records and good quality album material and this format was confirmed by the Committee’s research. In other words listeners did not want continuous pop all day and every day. This format has remained constant to this day, although naturally the records do change.

We are grateful to the local record shops who supply us with sales returns so we can compile our weekly top forty selling singles.

A phrase I use regularly on Radio Hallam is “Radio Hallam leads not follows”, and this has been borne out by the fact that our Top 40 record charts are sometimes up to three weeks ahead of the national hit parade.

Jingles

In June we set about writing and producing our own radio jingles. I had contacted a Ray Martin, well-known Musical Director, to score some 50 jingles which were produced with popular session musicians and singers during the month of July 1974. I still believe that Radio Hallam has the most commercial set of jingles in the entire ILR network.

We had set our target date to begin broadcasting on October 1st which would make us the fastest radio station “on air” from the time we were awarded the franchise to the actual beginning of transmissions. This was achieved. 

On June 10th, 1974 we held a Press Conference to announce the signing of the Disc Jockeys. Within a month our Sales team had been recruited and our broadcasters were visiting local advertisers. Yorkshire businessmen, traditionally canny about claims of a new advertising medium, were delighted to meet the voices of Radio Hallam.

It was our intention to attract the 16-45 years old age group. I was basically against ‘phone-ins and requests all day. It appears that every radio station, both national and local in Great Britain specialises in ‘phone-in programmes. One hears listeners drying up, or stuttering and stammering, quite often expressing banal opinions dressed up with wordy clichés. Quite often the technical equipment is mishandled and telephone calls fail to be connected. How many times do we regularly hear “Hello, can you hear me?” Many is the time an unsuitable question gets through the station’s vetting system of calls. I did not want any of this unprofessionalism.

Similarly with requests one could tune anywhere along the radio dial and hear “name checks” for people all day long. So I decided to introduce one daily request programme in the evening and a two-hour programme at the weekend — otherwise no requests!

Music format

Music from 6.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. would centre around a Playlist of 100 records — the Top 40 singles, reflected from local sales, 40 selected albums and 20 New Releases. The Playlist would change each week. Non-format music would be broadcast in the evening and the total number of hours “on air” each day was 18.

It is interesting to note that over 100 singles are released each week by record companies and up to 25 albums. It is from this large number that the Disc Jockeys select new releases.

The week before we went “on air” the BBC kindly arranged a Radio Week in Sheffield, which, said a spokesman, was “just coincidence”. This did not upset us — in fact it indirectly helped us draw attention to the existence of radio in Sheffield. The way we looked at it was the national networks were here in the city for less than a week but Radio Hallam was here to stay.

Most of our broadcasts were disc shows although later we did feature groups and bands and perhaps the highlight of our first year was a two-hour broadcast with Kenny Ball and his Jazzmen from a leading Sheffield hotel. We have also linked up with other radio stations both inside and outside Great Britain.

Throughout the summer months our OB’s have paid surprise visits to shopping precincts, schools, parks and even people’s houses, all live. We would have some 500 people arriving at a location displaying their Hallam badges and car stickers. We have broadcast from hospitals and old people’s homes. Total involvement with the community on an entertainment footing.

We had more serious OB’s like the Royal visit to South Yorkshire of Her Majesty the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh, Remembrance Sunday, the switching on of the Sheffield Christmas Illuminations, Christmas Children’s Party, an open debate on the Common Market Referendum, local elections, Battle of Britain Day from RAF Finningley, a News Review of the Year and many, many more.

MARC BOLAN
Seen here enjoying the sun and meeting the people of ‘Hallamland’ during one of the popular lunch-time ‘Walkabouts’

Survey

A survey conducted by National Opinion Polls in November 1974 gave Radio Hallam a 25% daily listening figure compared with BBC Radio Two, 26%, Radio One, 24%, and Radio Sheffield 19%.

It was around this time certain senior executives with the BBC criticised commercial radio and said it had no impact whatsoever. I believed that Radio Hallam would be a success due to our broadcasters being totally professional. Most of us have worked with either BBC national or local radio and it is due to the Corporation’s rigorous training we learned how to be professional. At the same time we fully understood the meaning of discipline. My colleagues would agree that we are grateful to the BBC for teaching us so many of the tricks of the trade that we are now putting into practice in Sheffield.

Studio guests Alan Price, Johnny Nash, Elton John, Chip Hawkes & Lyn Paul.

Personalities

Interviews with personalities is a series I particularly wanted to cover — two hours in-depth chat with a particular artist or artistes each week to find out what makes them tick. Names like Dave Berry, Slade, David Essex, Cliff Richard, Alvin Stardust, Lulu, Gilbert O’Sullivan, Des O’Connor, Johnny Nash, Roy Orbison, Gene Pitney, The Four Tops and Neil Sedaka. A more comprehensive list can be found later.

The first six months we experimented by using freelance DJ’s at weekends most of whom were local Yorkshire people. We even invited members of the public to present their own kind of music in an hour long weekly programme.

A local journalist had a go at becoming a disc jockey for an afternoon. Here are edited highlights of what he said in his column. “A Disc Jockey is one of the hero figures of the post war world. He has long since replaced the Fighter Pilot, the Explorer and even the Engine Driver in the pantheon of desirable occupations. To be a DJ is to have made it, man.

“The world seems full of young hopefuls all eager to play with the tinkling toys of the electric village. To try to find out why, I became a DJ for just an hour, then spent a couple of days asking the pros about the cons of the job.

“It seemed so easy — a cinch. It’s basically playing records and making comments. Call that a job?

“My first hard lesson was that the DJ does everything. There is an engineering staff who fiddle with the equipment when something goes wrong, but the running of the transmission is in the hands of the man at the turntable.

“While (Y-Front Up The Nile) is going out on the transmission channel the DJ has to “cue up” the next disc, listening over his headphones for the opening chords so that he can hold the disc still, on a spinning turntable, ready to let it go after a few moments of chat.

“One disc is roaring out over the air, and being reproduced in the Studio on a powerful pair of studio speakers so the DJ can listen for disasters, such as a sticking needle, while at the same time another disc is playing in his headphones.

“This is by no means the only distraction. As soon as the first record has finished, the DJ has to snatch the channel off the air and “fade up” the mike to announce either the record that has just been played, or the next record, or both. All this time he is holding the second record at a standstill.

“Having finished the announcements he uses his free hand to cut the mike and fade up the second turntable letting go the captive record as he does so.

“He then snatches up a miniature tape recorder and notes the details of the first record. The performer, publisher, writer and the exact running time of the record. He then has to tick it off on a checklist.

“I got through my hour but that’s about the size of it. I got through just. I had a lot of help.”

STEPHANIE DE SYKES
Pictured with a smile on her face at Sheffield’s Club Fiesta with Johnny Moran and Keith Skues (front) and members of NEW FACES.

Longer hours

In June 1975 the IBA readily agreed for Radio Hallam to extend its broadcasting hours therefore opening transmissions at 4.55 a.m. and remaining on the air until 1.00 a.m. the following morning, except on Friday and Saturday when the station stays open till 3.00 a.m.

These were the hours of broadcasting, and the basic structure promised in our application to the IBA early in 1974, and for which we were awarded the franchise.

New programmes to be introduced included a three-hour show of either soul or rock music every weekday evening commencing at 8.00 p.m. which was directed towards young adults with particular emphasis on the pleasure of music in the interference free service area of the VHF transmitters radiating from Sheffield and Rotherham.

By public demand a series entitled “20 Years of Rock and Roll” was broadcast twice weekly and other new programmes included country music, brass bands, northern soul, new release records and a special half hour chat feature at 7.30 p.m. on weekdays which was also a component of the original programme proposals by Radio Hallam to the IBA. Sports programmes were extended and extra new bulletins scheduled with the emphasis on local and regional news.

Public response to Radio Hallam’s extended hours was astounding. I had re-scheduled a number of programmes following the careful analysis of listeners, letters over a period of 8 months and confirming research undertaken by our presentation department.

In the summer of 1975 another audience research survey (this time conducted by RSGB) gave Radio Hallam a weekly listenership of 48% of the population in our service area and was the highest of any local station in England. The survey showed our primary audience was 16-45 year olds and proved therefore we were right on target. We are all aware that music is the magnet to attract listeners. However at the same time I believe that commercial radio should have a very broad appeal and have a highly developed sense of social responsibility.

Executives of radio stations are forever looking at BBC listening figures and comparing whether they are beating us or vice versa. One wants to encourage the greatest diversity and expansion to changes in taste. Therefore I believe there are real advantages in having a strong amount of competition with more than one kind of programme to offer listeners on a local basis.

“If Yorkshire is the entertainment centre of the North, then Radio Hallam is, in the same way, the leader in its field.”

How it all works

How it all works

by Derrick Connolly

Chief Engineer

There are two studios, one continuously on air, Studio A, where most of the programmes are originated. This is operated by the on-air presenter. He, or she, must not only present the programme but must also mix together and balance all the sources available. These consist of three turntables, six cartridge players for commercials and jingles, two tape machines, two stereo outside broadcast sources, his own microphone, an interview microphone, mono outside broadcast source, a news feed and on-air telephone calls.

Control B is normally operated by an engineer with guests seated around microphones in its studio area. The control room is equipped with a main and an auxiliary mixer with a total of nineteen channels, two turntables, two tape recorders, three cartridge machines to replay jingles, a recording cartridge machine, a wide range of microphones and an echo unit for effects. This area is used for pre recording commercials, some interviews with guests and goes ‘live’ for the day’s major news programme ‘Newscene’ at 5.30 p.m. In an average month Radio Hallam uses nearly 100 miles of Scotch Professional recording tape.

Since Radio Hallam has a policy of meeting people where they live, work or relax, there is a full stereo outside broadcast caravan, a radio car equipped with UHF and VHF programme links and all the necessary equipment for doing outside broadcasts from literally any street corner, club or shop.

To cover sport, permanent lines are installed to the ‘Big Six’ local football grounds and portable outside broadcast units can be used from any of these.

During major outside broadcasts such as the ‘Radio Hallam Roadshow’, a stereo pair of lines is provided by the Post Office back to the studio. These are used to send back the programmes from the outside broadcast desk to the studio, where, after checking on the quality before putting it out on air, it is mixed into the programme and routed to the transmitters from Studio A.

All the programmes from Radio Hallam are normally transmitted simultaneously on Medium wave (194 metres, 1546 Kilo-Hertz) and on VHF in stereo (95·2 Mega-Hertz Sheffield and 95·9 Mega-Hertz Rotherham). To achieve the standards required for good stereo reception, high quality equipment from Britain, Europe and America is used. To give an idea of the quality of equipment, one tape recorder would cost in the region of £1,600. The equipment and studios are periodically inspected by the I.B.A. to ensure that the necessary standards are being maintained.

Due to the number of stations on medium wave, good reception is sometimes difficult. Most sets now have built-in aerials, so to get the best reception turn the radio for minimum interference.

On portable VHF receivers, use the built-in aerial fully extended and adjusted to give the best signal, probably with the aerial horizontal. On a receiver with facilities for connecting an external aerial, a good aerial should either be mounted in the loft or preferably on the roof. A better aerial will be necessary for stereo reception than for mono.

The Engineering Team
From left to right:
Mike Adams, Trainee Engineer, Stuart Stubbs, Sound Engineer, Bridget Whittaker, Technical Operator, Mike Rouse, Technical Operator, Mike Lindsay, Assistant Chief Engineer.

Derrick Connolly – Chief Engineer

Originally from Sheffield, after completing training at Sheffield Polytechnic and AEI-GEC, moved to the I.B.A., taking specialised television courses and then worked at Emley Moor and Croydon television transmitters. From there he moved to Capital Radio in London and finally joining Radio Hallam in July 1974.

Michael Lindsay — Assistant Chief Engineer and Production Manager

First became interested in electronics when he was five. He was given an electric crane for Xmas which had been irreparably ‘serviced’ by Boxing Day. After six cranes, four torches and three electric train sets, he decided to learn from someone who knew something about it, so, whilst still at school (aged 14) he went to work on Saturdays in a Hi-Fi shop repairing, maintaining and installing all sorts of Hi-Fi equipment. However, he was not happy to be on the receiving end of the music and decided to get on the transmitting end; after a pirate station, the BBC and a recording company, he joined Radio Hallam following a chance meeting with Keith Skues in March of 1974. Born in London and has worked in Holland, Sweden and the sea in between the two.

Michael has asked us to say that he combines his talents as a brilliant engineer and his undoubtable flair for dee-jaying on Saturday evenings from 7 until 9 p.m. when he presents “Lindsay”. Michael has a very diverse (or did he say perverse) taste in music ranging from Carly Simon and The Carpenters (not Frank) to Vivaldi and Strauss. We would like to say that some of the above is true, unfortunately…

Bridget Whittaker — Technical Operator

Born in Leeds but moved to Sheffield when twelve. After leaving school in Dronfield, joined the BBC directly and worked as a Technical Operator in the control room at Broadcasting House, London. In the Autumn of 1974 she moved back to Sheffield to join Radio Hallam where she is responsible for pre-recording programmes, editing and other operational duties including control room and outside broadcasts.

Stuart Stubbs — Sound Engineer

Qualified at Sheffield Polytechnic in Applied Physics, worked initially as a development engineer for a small Sheffield company and worked mainly on installation of equipment both in England and abroad. Later joined the BBC and again was involved in development and commissioning of equipment for both television and radio. With the start of commercial radio in Great Britain, he defected to the ‘other side’ and joined Piccadilly Radio but in a more operational role and finally came home to Sheffield when he joined Radio Hallam early in 1975, now being involved in both development and operational work.

Mike Rouse — Technical Operator

Born in Scarborough and also joined the BBC directly from school. He worked in the control room of London’s Broadcasting House for four years, then moved to Radio Hallam in the Autumn of 1974. His main engineering responsibilities at Radio Hallam are for pre-recording programmes, editing and operational duties.

Mike also presents the popular “Flyin’ Pizza Show” every Saturday (12-1 p.m.) and enjoys appearing with the Radio Hallam Roadshow.

Mick Adams — Trainee Engineer

Born in Stafford, after leaving Rugeley Grammar School went to Sheffield University in October 1970 reading Electronic Engineering. While at the University was involved with various Student Union activities.

Joined Radio Hallam in Autumn 1975 after leaving university with a B.Eng., (although he still hasn’t shown it to us … we suspect he’s still trying to print one!)

1975 ● THIS IS TRANSDIFFUSION